Unit 335 apprenticeship level 3 paper

After the Declaration of Independenceslavery in the US was progressively abolished in the north, but only finished by the 13th Amendment in near the end of the American Civil War.

Unit 335 apprenticeship level 3 paper

Unit 335 apprenticeship level 3 paper

Atlas of Limb Prosthetics: Surgical, Prosthetic, and Rehabilitation Principles. Much of the material in this text has been updated and published in Atlas of Amputations and Limb Deficiencies: Click for more information about this text.

The oldest known artificial limb in existence was a copper-and-wood leg unearthed at Capri, Italy, inwhich was supposedly made about B.

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Artificial hands made of iron were used by knights in the 15th century. The Alt-Ruppin hand, shown along with other hands from the 15th century in the Stibbert Museum, Florence, Italy, is a good example of the work of that age. With respect to surgery, Hippocrates described the use of ligatures, but this technique was lost during the Dark Ages.

It was reintroduced in by Ambroise Pare, a French military surgeon. As a result, amputations came to be used more and more as a lifesaving measure since the rate of survival was much higher when ligatures were used.

Morel introduced the tourniquet inwhich gave another impetus to amputation surgery. Pare carried out the first elbow disarticulation procedure in Sir James Syme reported his procedure for amputation at the ankle in The introduction of antiseptic technique in by Lord Lister, a student and son-in-law of Syme, contributed greatly to the overall success of amputation surgery, as did the use of chloroform and ether about the same time.

The concept of kineplasty to power upper-limb prostheses directly by muscle contraction was introduced by Vanghetti in while trying to improve the function of Italian soldiers who had their hands amputated by the Abyssinians.

Vanghetti's associate, Ceci, performed the first operation of this type on humans in In Germany, Sauerbruch and ten Horn developed the skin-lined muscle tunnel, and Bosch Arana in Argentina carried out clinical studies of this procedure in the s.

Bier, aboutin an effort to make the distal end of the cut bone able to bear weight, recommended an osteoplastic procedure in which the cut end was covered with a flap of cortical bone connected by a periosteal hinge.

This procedure never became widespread, but in the late s, Ertl went a step further and developed a procedure for forming a bone bridge between the cut ends of the fibula and tibia. A few years later Mondry combined the bone bridge technique with myodesis, or attachment of the cut muscles to each other over the distal end of the stump.

Dederich, Weiss et al. Each major war seems to have been the stimulus not only for improvement of amputation surgical techniques but also for the development of improved prostheses.

Toward the end of World War II, amputees in military hospitals in the United States began voicing their disappointment about the performance afforded by their artificial limbs.

At the end of the war when the OSRD was disbanded, the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army continued support that was later assumed by the Veterans Administration, which had also inherited the responsibility for the care of military amputees after discharge from the armed services.

For the first 2 years the NAS, through the Committee on Artificial Limbs CALactually initiated and administered the program through subcontracts with several universities and industrial laboratories. On June 30,the CAL was discharged, and the role of the NAS became an advisory one to the Veterans Administration, which contracted directly with various research groups.

Inthe Veterans Administration also established its own testing and development laboratory in New York City. The army and navy cooperated and contributed by supporting prosthetics research laboratories within their respective organizations.

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Chapter 1 - Atlas of Limb Prosthetics: Surgical, Prosthetic, and Rehabilitation Principles History of Amputation Surgery and Prosthetics A. Bennett Wilson Jr., B.S.M.E.

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No doubt artificial limbs of some type, such as a forked stick, have been used since the beginning of mankind, but the earliest recorded use of a limb prosthesis is that of a Persian soldier, Hegesistratus, who was reported by. responsibly sourced and recycled paper. Issue 3 Speci cation BTEC Level 1/Level 2 First to further study at level 3, into an apprenticeship or into the workplace.

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