Focus on Families and Communities" By: I added a section to the article V. Analysis to this class assignment.
Open Systems Theory Open system theory was intially developed by Ludwig von Bertanlanffya biologist, but it was immediately applicable across all disciplines. It defines the concept of a system, where "all Open system theory are characterized by an assemblage or combination of parts whose relations make them interdependent" Scott p.
As one moves from mechanical to organic and social systems, the the interactions between parts in the system become more complex and variable. In mechanical systems the parts are highly constrained. In social systems, the connections are loosely coupled. Also important is the flow of materials, energy, and information across system boundaries separating the system from its environment.
Simpler systems transmit primarily energy, while higher order systems transmit information. Open systems like organizations are "multi-cephalous: Individual and subgroups form and leave coalitions. Boundaries are amorphous, permeable, and ever changing.
But the system must exchage resources with the environment to survive. Boulding developed a classification system to describe the degree of complexity in systems Boulding, p. Frameworks -- systems comprising static structures crystals,animal anatomy 2.
Clockworks -- simple dynamic systems with pre-determined motions clocks, solar system 3. Cybernetic Systems -- capable of self-regulation with an externally prescribed target thermostat 4. Open systems -- self-maintenance through exchange of resources with environment cell 5. Blueprint-growth systems -- reproduce through sees or eggs 6.
Internal-image systems -- systems have detailed awareness of environment animals 7. Symbol-processing systems -- self-consciousness and language humans 8. Social systems -- actors at level 7 who share common order and culture 9.
Transcendental systems -- "absolutes and inescapable unknowables" Each higher system incorporates the lower systems below it. For example, viewing organizations as cybernetic systems we can see the importance of policy setting and control centers that develop the regulation programs that guide organizational decision making.
Double-loop learning made popular by Chris Argyris involves two loops - one that sets the organizational goals and monitors progress toward them through internal feedback, and another that changes the organizational goals based on external feedback.
This allows the organization to adapt to environmental changes. Cybernetic systems result in behavior that is goal-directed, not merely goal oriented. Open systems also engage in two main sets of system processes. Morphostasis processes in organizations tend to preserve the systems given form through socialization and control activities.
Morphogenesis processes elaborate or change the system, often by becoming more complex or differentiated. Katz and Kahn p. Importation of energy from the environment resources, people, etc. Throughput transform resources avialable to them. Output export some resources to the environment.
Systems as cycles of events 5. Information input, negative feedback, and a coding process.
The steady state and dynamic homeostasis and a tendency toward growth to ensure survival.A system that interfaces and interacts with its environment, by receiving inputs from and delivering outputs to the outside, is called an open system. They possess permeable boundaries, that permits interaction across its boundary, through which new information or ideas are readily absorbed.
Control theory in control systems engineering is a subfield of mathematics that deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshoot and ensuring control stability. Control theory in control systems engineering is a subfield of mathematics that deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshoot and ensuring control stability. Open Systems Theory Michael N.
Bastedo, University of Michigan Entry, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration Draft: April 28, Open systems theory refers simply to the concept that organizations are strongly. An open system is a system that regularly exchanges feedback with its external environment.
Open systems are systems, of course, so inputs, processes, outputs, goals, assessment and evaluation, and. Lennart Ljung's System Identification: Theory for the User is a complete, coherent description of the theory, methodology, and practice of System Identification.