The first member of his family to attend college, he earned his medical degree from the New York University School of Medicine in and became a scientist physician at Mount Sinai Hospital.
Public Health Service licensed the killed-virus vaccine against poliomyelitis developed by Jonas Salk. In the decades since, a great myth has grown to dominate the popular imagination.
On the anniversary day and minute, the Smithsonian Institution tolled the bell on its oldest building 50 times to open an exhibit at the National Museum of American History centered on Salk and the vaccine. That morning, the science correspondent for National Public Radio extolled the polio conquest and the Salk vaccine in the first part of a three-part series.
In the weeks before, two new books had appeared. Six more are now in the works. This retelling of the history of polio, however, is largely a distortion. The full, true story is far more complex.
Its hero is Albert Sabin — for if any one man conquered polio, it was Sabin, who developed the oral attenuated live-virus vaccine. This story is part of our July Issue Subscribe But it seems some prefer the myth to the fact. Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio pushes the myth to an extreme.
Kluger is a senior writer at Time. In his version, the myth contains three assertions. If only it had been used for a few more years, it would have eradicated the disease.
In contrast, contends Kluger, Salk was controlled in his demeanor: These charges demand careful attention.
It arose from four crucial discoveries. Then they showed that a preparation of killed virus could inoculate monkeys against the disease. InDorothy Horstmann of Yale University School of Medicine and Bodian, independently, established that polio is a blood-borne disease.
Also inHowe suggested that killed virus could produce good antibody responses in children. Henderson — the man who organized the worldwide eradication of smallpox — was then at the U. For Sabin, the problems were three: Early on, Sabin held that one particular strain Salk had used—a highly virulent strain called Mahoney — would be hard to kill and thus dangerous.
The question of efficacy was whether any killed-virus vaccine could produce lifelong immunity. And finally, even though the vaccine did stimulate production of antibodies, three shots were necessary, plus a later booster. Sabin put the point most succinctly: Then came the shock of the Cutter incident.
On April 24,just days after the Salk vaccine went into use, polio broke out among children who had received shots from a batch made by Cutter Laboratories in California.
It is usually asserted that the Cutter incident was caused by particular lots of vaccine that still contained live polio virus, but the presence of the live virus has never been satisfactorily explained. Joshua Lederberg, who received a Nobel Prize in for his work in bacterial genetics, was involved in polio-virus research in the early s.
Lederberg said that the chemistry of the formaldehyde-virus interaction has never been adequately studied. After the Cutter incident, production methods were changed.
No further safety problems with the vaccine have been reported. He had it within his power to cause almost anything to happen. If it is admitted that it can be made safer, then it is not sufficiently safe. Salk emerges here as a complex scientist. He was an outsider, Oshinsky writes.Apr 03, · Jonas Salk: A Life by Charlotte DeCroes Jacobs is a very detailed and exhaustively researched biography of both the man and his work.
For a scientist who arguably made the most important discovery of the 20th century in healthcare his life was not simply a /5. Jonas Salk A Life Charlotte DeCroes Jacobs. Based on unprecedented access to Salk's sealed archives and hundreds of personal interviews conducted by the author.
With Jonas Salk: a Life, Jacobs demonstrates her immense skill at creating a compelling drama of personality, temperament, and character. One person found this helpful Helpful. This thorough biography of Jonas Salk by MD, author (Henry Kaplan and the Story of Hodgkin's Disease), and professor emerita Jacobs (Ben and A.
Jess Shenson Professor of Medicine, Stanford Univ.) chronicles Salk's life (–95) from childhood through influenza studies to . With Jonas Salk: a Life, Jacobs demonstrates her immense skill at creating a compelling drama of personality, temperament, and character.
One person found this helpful Helpful/5(55). Jul 01, · Oxford University Press, , $ April 12 was the day, 50 years ago, that the U.S. Public Health Service licensed the killed-virus vaccine against poliomyelitis developed by Jonas caninariojana.com: Angela Matysiak.